Blood cancer: symptoms in women. Symptoms of blood cancer in adults
Cancer of blood directly affects production andfunctioning of blood cells. Malignant process often begins in the bone marrow. Bone marrow stem cells mature and develop, acquiring characteristics of blood cells of one of three types: erythrocytes, leukocytes or platelets. In the presence of cancer, the process of normal cellular development is disrupted due to uncontrolled growth of pathological blood cells. These are cancer cells that interfere with the basic functions of the blood. In particular, the mechanisms for ensuring protection against infections and preventing severe bleeding are violated.
There are three main types of oncological pathologies, commonly referred to as "blood cancer". Symptoms (signs), treatment and rehabilitation depend on the type of disorder and the stage of the disease.
- Leukemia. In this disease, cancer cells are found in the blood and bone marrow. The main feature is the rapid accumulation of pathologically altered white blood cells (leukocytes). Increasing their number causes the inability of the body to fight infections, and also prevents the normal production of red blood cells and platelets.
- Lymphoma. This type of cancer affects the lymphatic system responsible for removing excess fluid from the body and producing immune cells. Lymphocytes are a kind of white blood cells that prevent infection. Pathological lymphocytes are transformed into lymphoma cells, which multiply and accumulate in the lymph nodes and other tissues. Over time, these cancers destroy the immune system.
- Myeloma. This is the name for cancer of plasma cells - white blood cells, responsible for producing antibodies to diseases and infections. Cancer undermines the functioning of the immune system, weakening the body.
Leukemia is a cancer of the blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow and lymphatic system.
There are many forms of this disease. Some of them are more common in children, others - in adults.
Symptoms of blood cancer in adults (leukemia) differ depending on the subtype of the disease. However, we can identify a number of common features, among which are listed:
- fever or chills;
- chronic fatigue and weakness;
- frequent or severe infections;
- unexplained weight loss;
- inflamed lymph nodes, enlarged liver or spleen;
- tendency to bleeding and bruising;
- frequent bleeding from the nose;
- the appearance of red dots on the skin (petechia);
- increased sweating, especially at night;
- pain in the bones;
- fragility of bones.
Be sure to consult with a therapist if you are concerned about any of the above symptoms.
The signs of leukemia are often devoid of clarity and specificity. They are easy not to notice or attributed to the account of a more common disease - for example, the flu.
In rare cases, the analysis given to diagnose another malaise reveals blood cancer. Causes, symptoms (signs), treatment and rehabilitation in such cases are of an individual nature.
There are factors that increase the risk of developing certain types of leukemia. These include the following:
- Treatment of cancer of a different kind. Leukemia can threaten patients who have undergone a complete course of radio or chemotherapy.
- Genetic pathologies. The increased risk of developing leukemia accompanies such genetic pathologies as Down syndrome.
- Exposure to certain chemicals. Particularly dangerous is benzene, which is a part of gasoline.
- Smoking. The use of cigarettes increases the risk of developing acute myelogenous leukemia.
- Leukemia in a family anamnesis. Like many diseases, leukemia can be caused by a hereditary factor.
Nevertheless, not all people in risk groupsfall ill with leukemia. Conversely, potential patients of oncologists often do not suspect that they are threatened with blood cancer. Symptoms in women are similar in many respects to signs of hormonal failure or infection.
Myeloma (including multiple) is an oncological disease of plasma cells. These cells help fight infections by creating antibodies that recognize and destroy parasites.
Myeloma causes congestion pathologicallyaltered cells in the bone marrow, where they gradually displace healthy cells. Instead of producing useful antibodies, cancerous growths produce pathological proteins that subsequently cause kidney problems.
Myeloma does not require active treatment ifthe patient does not suffer from symptoms. If there are corresponding signs, the doctor prescribes procedures and medicines that facilitate the manifestation of symptoms of blood cancer of this species.
In the early stages of the disease, the symptoms of blood cancer in adults, as a rule, are absent. Later the following conditions may occur:
- loss of appetite;
- obscuration of consciousness or disorientation in time and space;
- pain in the bones, especially in the back or chest;
- frequent infections;
- weight loss;
- weakness or numbness of the legs;
- excessive thirst.
The following circumstances increase the risk of myeloma development:
- Age. In most cases, the disease is diagnosed in patients aged 60-70 years.
- Male. Symptoms (signs) of blood cancer in women appear less frequently than in men.
- Negroid race. In representatives of the Negroid race, the risk of myeloma is twice as high as that of Caucasian patients.
- The presence in the medical history of the diagnosis of "monoclonal gammopathy of unknown etiology." One percent of patients with this disease of plasma cells subsequently suffer from blood cancer.
Lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system designed to fight diseases.
The lymphatic system includes lymph nodes (lymph glands), spleen, fork (zobnuyu) gland and bone marrow. Cancer can affect all these elements, as well as other organs throughout the body.
There are many varieties of this disease, but in the first place it is divided into two types:
- Lymphoma of Hodgkin.
- Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Treatment depends on the type and stage of the cancer, as well as on thewishes of the patient. Radio, chemotherapy, biological therapy, and stem cell transplantation are commonly used to help stop blood cancer. Causes, symptoms and treatment of the disease are determined on an individual basis.
Lymphoma of Hodgkin
Earlier this illness was called Hodgkin's disease. In cancer of this type, an abnormal growth of cells of the lymphatic system is diagnosed, which can spread beyond its limits. As the disease progresses, the body's ability to resist infections is impaired.
Innovative methods of diagnosis and treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma give patients with this diagnosis the hope for a full recovery. Currently, the forecast continues to improve.
In order to ensure timely detection and treatment of the disease, special attention should be paid to the following main symptoms of blood cancer (Hodgkin's lymphoma):
- Painless inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpits or inguinal region.
- Chronic fatigue.
- Heat or chills.
- Increased sweating at night (night tides).
- Unexplained weight loss (ten and more percent of body weight).
- Loss of appetite.
- Hypersensitivity to alcohol or pain in the area of lymph nodes after drinking.
What can cause the development of blood cancer? Factors that increase the risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma include the following:
- Age. Cancer of this type is diagnosed in patients aged 15 to 30 years, as well as those who have reached 55 years of age.
- Lymphoma in a family anamnesis. If a close relative is diagnosed with any type of lymphoma (both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin's), the patient is at risk because he can inherit blood cancer. Symptoms in women are usually characterized by sufficient specificity and allow in the shortest possible time to conduct diagnostics.
- Floor. In men, this disease is more common than in women.
- Postponed Epstein-Barr infection. Diseases caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (such as infectious mononucleosis) increase the risk of developing Hodgkin's lymphoma.
- Weakness of the immune system. The risk becomes higher if the patient is diagnosed with HIV / AIDS or if the patient has undergone an organ transplant requiring the use of medications to suppress the immune response.
With non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, tumors develop from lymphocytes - white blood cells.
This disease is much more common thanHodgkin's lymphoma. According to statistics, the most common subspecies of this blood cancer are diffuse large-cell B-cell lymphoma (DCL) and follicular lymphoma.
On subjective grounds it is not always possible to immediately determine this blood cancer. Symptoms in women, as in men, include the following:
- Painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpits or inguinal area.
- Pain or inflammation in the abdominal cavity.
- Chest pain, cough or shortness of breath.
- Increased body temperature.
- Increased sweating at night (night tides).
- Weight loss.
Some circumstances can increase the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Among them:
- Taking medications that depress the immune system. Medicines of this type are used for organ transplantation.
- Diseases caused by certain viruses andbacteria. The viruses associated with the development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma include HIV and Epstein-Barr infection. Among the bacteria, Helicobacter pylori, which causes a stomach ulcer and duodenal ulcer, is considered especially dangerous.
- Exposure to chemicals. Some substances, including those used for the destruction of insect pests and weeds, in rare cases cause blood cancer. Symptoms in women tend to manifest faster than in men.
- Elderly age. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma can appear at any age, but most often it is diagnosed in patients older than 60 years.
In the United States, the diagnosis of "blood cancer" is made approximately every three minutes. Every ten minutes an American dies from leukemia, myeloma or lymphoma - this is approximately 152 people a day.
More than 310,000 US residents live with a diagnosis"leukemia," almost 731,000 are treated with Hodgkin's lymphoma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 89,000 are struggling with myeloma. The forecast is most favorable for representatives of the Caucasoid race.