Catarrh of pharyngitis: causes, symptoms and treatment
Catarrh of pharyngitis is a disease in acute orChronic form, which is expressed by inflammation of the lymphoid tissue in the throat. Most often, the incidence of pharyngitis increases dramatically in the cold season due to low air temperature, weakened immunity, a seasonal lack of vitamins in the body, a large number of cases of acute respiratory diseases.
The main causes of pharyngitis
According to statistical data, 75-80% of cases of this disease are due to the activity of pathogenic microorganisms (viruses) and bacteria, which include:
- rhinovirus and influenza;
- herpes simple;
- Coxsackie or Epstein-Barr viruses;
- enterovirus, cytomegalovirus;
- bacteria: streptococci, pneumococci.
Also catarrhal pharyngitis can develop against the background of ARVI and due to the introduction of fungi into the throat area.
Such forms of the disease can be determined accuratelyonly with the help of the test: a smear from the throat. Regardless of the reasons that caused it, pharyngitis tends to develop the disease in the descending direction, causing inflammation of not only the throat, but also the upper respiratory tract.
Non-infectious causes of pharyngitis
There are other causes of acute catarrhal pharyngitis:
- allergic reactions or the action of chemicals;
- effects of diseases in the esophagus and stomach;
- alcohol abuse, heavy smoking, taking too cold / hot food or drinks;
- some changes in the mucous membrane of the throat after surgery to remove the glands, atrophy of the pharynx;
- difficulty breathing through the nose due to excessive use of drops with a vasoconstrictor effect, irregular anatomy of the nasal passages;
- with prolonged rhinitis, when an inflammatory secretion constantly gets into the throat and brings infection;
- lack of vitamin A in the body;
- hormonal changes (puberty in adolescents, menopause in women, diseases of the endocrine system);
- reduced immunity, diseases of the autoimmune system.
Complications after pharyngitis
Acute catarrhal pharyngitis turns intochronic with improper treatment and neglect, with frequent exacerbations that are not treated by conventional therapeutic methods. In chronic pharyngitis, there is a large accumulation of mucus on the walls of the throat, crusts form, and the mucosa itself gradually becomes thinner, which can cause a feeling of permanent discomfort.
Another unpleasant consequence of impropertreatment of catarrhal pharyngitis may be the development of a purulent form of the disease on the background of a bacterial infection. It can be formed during the reproduction of fungi in the pharynx area.
Catarrhal pharyngitis: symptoms
The acute form of pharyngitis can be recognized by the following features:
- pain when swallowing, sore throat;
- unpleasant foreign body sensation;
- a slight increase in temperature;
- dry, rending cough;
- pains in muscles, joints and head;
- general feeling of pain, fatigue, chills.
Discomfort occurs when redness and swelling of the mucous membrane of the pharynx, often accompanied by inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck, under the jaw or ears.
In chronic catarrhal pharyngitis, symptomsless pronounced: with general well-being, there are unpleasant sensations in the throat: tickling, itching, frequent dry cough. Due to a long and addictive cough, some patients feel nervous irritation, there may be sleep disturbances.
Treatment of acute and chronic pharyngitis
When a patient is admitted to a doctor, according to his complaints andvisual examination of the throat and pharynx makes a preliminary diagnosis, focusing also on interviewing the patient about his lifestyle, abuse of smoking or alcohol, professional activity, mental state. Also, the doctor usually takes a swab from the throat to identify the cause and causative agent of the disease.
Treatment of acute catarrhal pharyngitisappointed on the basis of medical examination and clarification of the cause. If the disease is caused by bacteria, then antibiotics can be prescribed; in the viral form - the treatment of unpleasant symptoms is carried out in combination with vitamins and means of improving immunity.
How to treat catarrhal pharyngitis? The range of activities and regulations includes:
- diet food, in which you can not eat foods that irritate the mucous throat (hot and cold, salty, smoked, sharp)
- recommendations on nutrition: it is necessary to drink at least 2 liters of warm liquid per day, preferably milk or tea with honey, which have analgesic and enveloping effects;
- limit the effects of harmful substances on the throat (alcohol and tobacco);
- regular gargling or inhalation using anti-inflammatory herbal infusions or medicines (Chlorophyllipt, Furacilin, Miramistin, Rotocan);
- applying sprays to relieve pain and reducecough frequencies (based on chlorhexidine, iodine preparations, etc.), also in the bacterial form, sprays with antibiotics (Bioparox) or sulfonamides (Ingalipt, Biokarmint) are prescribed. Sprays "Imudon" and "Geksoral" active against a number of bacteria and fungi, they are appointed only at the direction of the attending physician;
- resorption of candies or lozenges that act on bacteria and viruses, relieve inflammation and soften the pharyngeal mucosa (Septolet, Neo-Angin, Faringosept, etc.)
- drugs containing iodine are prescribed carefully, taking into account the possible allergic reaction ("Iodinol", "Yoks", "Povidone-iodine").
Pharyngitis in children
Disease of acute pharyngitis in children occursmuch more often than adults because of their reduced immunity. Acute catarrhal pharyngitis in a child under 2 years of age is usually combined with inflammation of the nasal mucosa and rhinitis. Manifested by high temperature (up to + 38 º C), lethargy and sleep disorders, more severe course of the disease.
Older children have pharyngitis not so vivid symptoms: sore and sore throat, coughing, etc. Acute pharyngitis in children is usually accompanied by a runny nose or conjunctivitis.
The danger is that the symptoms of rednessthe posterior pharyngeal wall, similar to the manifestation of pharyngitis, may be a manifestation of other diseases: intestinal infections, mononucleosis, infectious diseases (measles, scarlet fever, diphtheria, etc.), mechanical burns of the throat or foreign body ingestion.
In children, complications of catarrhal pharyngitis mayto be quite heavy: the disease provokes swelling of the larynx and, as a result, the occurrence of asphyxiation. Therefore, parents should be vigilant to monitor the condition of children, especially young children.
Treatment of the disease in children
The general principles of child therapy are similar totreatment of pharyngitis in adults. A child can gargle with herbal decoction, soda, apply back wall lubrication with Iodinol or Lugol solutions, dissolve lollipops that relieve pain and destroy bacteria (Laringopront, Falimint, Strepsils), spray the throat with Yox, Ingalipt, Bioparox) and inhalation.
Be sure to take a smear from the throat to determine the cause of the disease.
It is very important to maintain an optimal microclimate in the room of the sick baby, which helps to alleviate the general condition:
- high humidity in the room, you can use humidifiers or put wet towels on the radiators;
- prevent the entry of dust, odor and tobacco smoke, polluted air;
- after improving the general condition to walk in the fresh air (in the warm season).
In children under the age of 1 year due to the impossibility of rinsing or drinking absorbable lozenges, the treatment of pharyngitis consists of the following procedures:
- wetting of the throat and rinsing the nose with antiseptic solutions (Humer, Aquamaris, etc.);
- abundant warm drink;
- for bacterial complications, the therapist prescribes antibiotics.
Treatment of pharyngitis with medications
Treatment of pharyngitis in adults and children depends onforms of the disease and its causes. If, after testing, it turns out that it is caused by bacteria or viruses, the attending physician, as a rule, prescribes a course of medication.
Depending on the form of the disease, the following medications are prescribed:
- if the analysis confirmed the bacterial form of the disease, then the pediatrician prescribes a course of antibiotics (10 days) - Azithromycin, Penicillin, Erythromycin, Amoxicillin;
- in case of viral origin of the disease - antiviral drugs ("Arbidol", "Anaferon", "Interferon", etc.);
- in the fungal form - antifungal drugs ("Nystatin", "Pimafucin");
- in the case of an allergic form, antihistamine medicines are prescribed (“Fenistil”, “Loratadine”, etc.).
Treatment with folk remedies
Treatment of catarrhal pharyngitis with folk remedies is primarily aimed at relieving inflammation and sore throat, softening its mucosa.
Basic folk methods:
- lubrication of the pharynx with softening solutions (a mixture of vegetable oil and salt, a mixture of 10% propolis tincture and sea buckthorn oil in a 1: 2 ratio);
- rinsing with herbal infusions;
- inhalation: steam or with the help of special inhalers.
Medicinal drinks that will be useful for pharyngitis:
- tea with raspberries, viburnum and honey;
- broth of dogrose;
- infusion of Hypericum.
Using herbs for rinsing
Parents often check with a pediatrician, the betterto gargle with pharyngitis children, whether it is possible to use herbal. Of course, all herbal decoctions or tinctures are effective means for the local treatment of throat and cough. They can be used in the form of a solution for rinsing, as well as inhalation.
The following herbal mixtures are commonly used for gargling in children over 2 years old and adults:
- Calendula and chamomile flowers, plantain leaves and sage.
- Dandelion flowers, pine buds, plantain leaves and birch.
- Chamomile flowers, Hypericum, sage leaves, oregano.
- An infusion of 20 g of coniferous buds, filled with a glass of boiling water, is used for acute pharyngitis.
- Calamus root (1 tbsp. L) boil for 10 minutes. from 2 tbsp. water, put 1 tbsp. l chamomile, mix, insist 1 hour - a good way to soften the mucous and relieve inflammation in chronic pharyngitis
- Mint infusion (1 tablespoon per cup of boiling water) will relieve pain and sore throat.
- Pharmaceutical tinctures of eucalyptus, calendula (20-30 drops. Per cup of warm water).
- Rinsing with a solution of sea salt (1 tbsp per 0.5 l of water) 6-7 times a day during the week is one of the proven means of treating the chronic form of the disease.
Inhalations with herb decoction or with propolis (40 g of wax and
60 g of propolis is steamed).
Prevention of pharyngitis
Preventive measures to prevent the disease catarrhal pharyngitis, as well as to prevent its spread the following:
- both adults and children - to maintain personal hygiene, wash hands, especially after walking or moving in transport, before eating food;
- the patient in the family to allocate separate cutlery: plates, spoons, cups;
- teach children to cover their mouth when sneezing or coughing, regularly wash handkerchiefs or use disposable ones
- sick children should limit contact with healthy ones: do not attend kindergarten, school until recovery.
General rules for the prevention of disease.throat and respiratory tract for adults and children: a healthy lifestyle, stopping smoking, increasing general immunity with the help of vitamins and tempering procedures.