Food poisoning in the child: signs, causes and treatment
Food poisoning in a child is far from beinga rarity, and especially in the hot season (a little less often in the fall). I had no time to look back - the kid immediately grabbed something with his dirty hands, which caused diarrhea. What is food poisoning in a child, what are the types, why it happens, what measures to take in this case - that's what this article will be about.
What is food poisoning?
Food poisoning is a digestive disorder,caused by the use of poor-quality products and ingestion of poisons or toxins with food. Doctors call poisonings intestinal infections, the causative agents of which are bacteria and viruses. The most common infections are: salmonellosis, dysentery, escherichiosis, iersiniosis, campylobacteriosis.
Types and causes of food poisoning
Food poisoning is conditionally divided into 2 groups:
- actual food poisoning that occurs afteruse of products containing toxic or toxic substances. This group includes poisoning with mushrooms or poisonous berries. And poisoning with chemicals that fall into the product through carelessness.
- PTI (food poisoning) - non-contagious acutedisease. It occurs when a child enters the body with food from various bacteria (Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Proteus, etc.).
The cause of PTI are not so microorganisms themselves,as toxins - poisonous substances, which are formed due to their life activity or death. Usually PTI has the character of a group illness and is characterized by an instant, short course.
Food poisoning occurs most often insummer and autumn periods. In summer, children usually become infected through products that are without a refrigerator and infected with pathogens, which in a warm environment begin to multiply rapidly. And in autumn the child is in danger if the vegetables and fruits eaten are unwashed or contain a large amount of nitrates. Microbes can get into food from dirty hands, toys or dirty dishes of sick animals. Sometimes, they are introduced and rodents, flies that have visited products. Microbes multiply rapidly under favorable conditions in food (sufficient humidity and temperature), releasing poisonous substances - toxins. They are what cause the symptoms of poisoning.
Food poisoning in a child can be caused bythe most diverse products. In summer, the most dangerous are dairy products and confectionery products not subjected to heat treatment. Quite often, poisoning with bananas and other fruits is also common (mainly if they are poorly washed). Especially favorable conditions for microbes in fish, meat, sausage, cottage cheese, yogurt, jelly, creams, eggs, etc. If the products are warm, the danger increases, and the cold slows down the multiplication of bacteria.
Most susceptible to food poisoning kids before3 years (more than 50%). Poisoning is very dangerous, especially in such small children, because they can lead to disastrous consequences. Therefore, it is necessary to recognize the signs of poisoning as soon as possible and provide the child with timely help.
An accurate diagnosis of intestinal infections can beis established only by a doctor, based on the clinical picture and laboratory tests (determination of the titer of antibodies in the venous blood and the causative agent in vomit and stool).
Food poisoning in a child can be suspectedits some symptoms. If the baby complains of pain in the abdomen, refuses food, becomes sluggish, he is disturbed by diarrhea and vomiting (often after a vomiting temperature rises), you need to immediately take up treatment. And before the arrival of a doctor, you can provide first aid.
Food poisoning: what to do before the doctor comes?
Before the arrival of a pediatrician or before the arrival of an ambulancetry to persuade the child to go to bed, borrow games, read, turn cartoons, because the smaller the baby will move, the more likely the complications are less. It is not necessary that the room is hot, you can not sweat the baby - his body loses water without it. It is also desirable, regardless of age, for the child to go to the pot, as in the case of an infectious disease it will protect against infection of the rest of the family.
So, what steps need to be taken?
1. Abundant drink. Because of a stomach upset and vomiting, a child loses a lot of fluids. Therefore, it is necessary to replenish the water balance. To do this, it is good to use ready-made powders (rehydron), diluting them in water. This water-salt cocktail perfectly replenishes the fluid loss and prevents dehydration, you can alternate it with warm tea, compote, broth of wild rose, carrot-rice decoction. Take them one by one spoon (tea or canteen - depending on the age) every 10 minutes. A greater volume of liquid will not be absorbed by the intestines of the baby and the liquid will immediately come out together with the liquid stool.
2. Rinsing of the stomach. If no more than 2 hours have elapsed since the ingestion of food that caused poisoning, it is necessary to wash the stomach with the baby. To do this, give him a drink of drinking water (16 ml / kg of weight - after 2 years). And then press on the root of the tongue, causing vomiting. After the successful completion of the procedure, a good effect will be provided by the sorbent (enterosgel, smecta, microsorb, polyphepan or activated charcoal). When a green, blood or mucus appears in the chair, the doctor will prescribe an antibiotic.
Please note: vomiting can not be caused by poisoning with household chemicals (as the liquid will go back, causing a burn of the esophagus and respiratory problems) and when the baby is unconscious or the cause of intoxication is unknown. In this case, the baby will be taken by the doctors, after washing the stomach with a probe. And before they come, the child can be given vegetable oil: a teaspoon to children under 3 years old, dessert - up to 7 years and a dining room - over 7.
3. Cleansing enema. When poisoning the baby is advisable to putcleansing enema (but you can do this only after consulting a doctor, because not with any problems with the tummy can apply this method of treatment!). Water at the same time should be used a little cooler than room temperature. The baby should be laid on the left barrel and grease the tip with enema enema, then gently enter it and slowly release the water. When the enema was pulled out, it is necessary to squeeze the baby's buttocks and hold it for some time. After the enema, it is also good to give the baby some sorbent.
4. When the temperature rises, the child's condition will be alleviated by an antipyretic agent (but not candles, but syrups or tablets).
5. Easy eating. In the menu, you must enter corrections. The main rule - do not force to eat, if the child does not want. It should be given in small portions (50 ml) every 2 hours. Puree semi-liquid dishes (mashed potatoes cooked on water, boiled vegetables, cereals, fish soufflé, viscous rice soup dairy-free) are the best.
6. Vitamins. After the recovery of the baby, ask the pediatrician to pick up a complex of vitamins for the baby. He after all needs to make up for the loss of useful substances and soon make up for everything.
What can not be done?
Do not give painkillers; abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea can be signs of various diseases requiring immediate surgical intervention. And when the pain is removed, it will be problematic to put a correct diagnosis.
You can not put ice or a hot water bottle on your baby's stomach - this can cause complications of an attack of pancreatitis, developing appendicitis, etc.
You can not drink a baby with a solution of potassium permanganate or use adult medications for diarrhea - the useful microflora of his intestines will suffer.
In small children, problems with the tummy ariseoften enough. But intestinal infection is a problem that can be prevented. And in order to insure the child against such troubles, it is necessary to be more attentive to the quality and purity of the products in the children's diet.