Is it possible to cure emphysema? Causes and symptoms of the disease


Associated with damage to alveoli, chronic lung disease is called emphysema. Pathology causes breathing problems and is incurable.

What causes emphysema?

The most common cause of the disease issmoking. In heavy smokers, cigarette smoke leads to irreversible destructive processes in the alveoli. The best thing to do in this case is to give up smoking completely. Such a measure will allow to stop destructive processes in the alveolar tissues, and the health status will improve. But it is possible to diagnose lung emphysema not only in smokers. Sometimes this disease develops for another reason - due to a lack of alpha-1-antitrypsin - a glycoprotein, which is designed to protect the lungs from tissue destruction. Studies allow us to conclude that in our time an important role in the development of emphysema is played by unfavorable environmental factors, including polluted air. In addition, the disease can be inhaled on a regular basis by various chemical compounds, dust, aerial suspension of cement.

emphysema of the lungs

It is possible to distinguish congenital (primary) emphysemalungs, which develops independently, and secondary, the development of which occurs against the background of other pulmonary diseases, most often obstructive bronchitis. In terms of prevalence, pathology is divided into localized and diffuse. And according to the degree of damage to the acinus, which is the structural unit of the lung, these types of emphysema are distinguished, such as panacinar (when the entire acinus is affected), centricacinous (the alveoli are affected in the center of the acinus), periacinarium (the distal part of the structural unit of the organ is affected).

Symptoms of emphysema

The leading symptom is an expiratory dyspnea,accompanied by difficulty breathing air. Initially, it appears only with physical exertion, and eventually progresses and appears even in a state of rest. The intensity of this symptom depends on the degree of respiratory failure. Together with shortness of breath, there is a cough, in which sparse mucous sputum is allocated. The expressed degree of respiratory insufficiency is manifested by the puffiness of the face, cyanosis, swelling on the veins of the veins. The sick begin to lose weight as a result of a large expenditure of energy to ensure the functioning of the respiratory muscles. If the disease is not treated, pathophysiological irreversible changes develop in the cardiopulmonary system.

Emphysema of the lungs: diagnosis and treatment features

signs of emphysema
To identify the disease, spirometry is performed -a study aimed at measuring inhaled / exhaled air, a blood test, a chest x-ray. As already mentioned, emphysema can not be cured. Supportive therapy is used to alleviate the symptoms. It includes the use of medications that prevent the further destruction of alveoli, and physiotherapy procedures. If the emphysema of the lungs caused smoking, you must immediately abandon the addiction - continued smoking can well lead to death. Long-term remissions of the disease can be achieved through exercise gymnastics.