Why a man is getting old and dying
Very few people know, but in the XVIII century the averagelife expectancy was only 24 years. After 100 years, this number doubled - up to 48 years. Now a newborn can live on average 76 years. Given the latest discoveries in biology, scientists believe that this figure will remain unchanged for a long time.
Today, the search for "juvenile apples" and the response tothe question of why a person is getting old is concentrated in the field of studying the genetic structure of cells, and less attention is paid to the role of stress and diets in people's lives. Those wishing to achieve immortality turn to anti-aging clinics, paying each year for $ 20,000 for hormonal therapy, DNA analysis and cosmic surgery. However, these experimental methods do not provide any guarantees of immortality - simply experts promise to prolong life.
Let's find out together when and why a person is aging, what are the signs and causes of aging and how to slow the aging process.
The concept of "aging"
The word "old age" is now associatedwith rejuvenating cosmetics and surgical operations. This is due to the fact that modern science is more focused on the study of outer space and the invention of new technologies. They simply forgot about immortality.
But Dr. John Langmor, a university professorMichigan, and his group "looked" inside the cells, into the very essence of human life. In particular, he studied the DNA molecule and found at its ends a chain of repeated pairs of enzymes, which were subsequently called "telomeres." They work as protective "caps" on the end of chromosomes, which eventually do not allow the molecules to split in half, which leads to aging and dying of a person.
What is "telomeres"
Scientists note that when a person becomesthe length of telomere chains decreases. Eventually they become so short that cell replication causes fatal errors or missing fragments in the DNA sequence, preventing the ability of the cell to replace itself. This limit point, when the cell has lost the DNA code of life and can not reproduce itself, is called the Hayflick limit. This is a measure of how many times a cell can copy itself before it dies.
Some cells in our body have a veryhigh limit of Hayflick. For example, the cells that are inside our mouth and in the intestines are constantly erased and replaced. Indeed, they appear to be able to grow telomeres even in adulthood. Then the scientists became interested in why some cells interfere with the growth of telomeres with age, and some do not.
Dr. Langmore, using physical,biochemical and genetic methods for studying the structure and function of telomeres, has developed a cell-free system for restoring the telomere functional model using synthetic DNA. And also revealed the mechanism by which telomeres can "stabilize", and the conditions that lead to their instability.
Protein factors "responsible" for stabilizationends of chromosomes, have been cloned and studied. Electron microscopy made it possible to directly visualize the structure of the telomere model. This interesting study led to many promising discoveries.
Scientists have discovered an important enzyme that can"Turn off" telomeres, so that the DNA molecule can infinitely bifurcate. It is called telomerase. But when we get older, the amount of telomerase in the cells decreases. This is the answer to the question of why the human body is aging.
Five basic theories
So, scientists have proved that death occurs incommunication with the loss of a large number of cells. There are several theories that explain how the Hayflick limit is expressed in the cells of our body. Let's consider them in more detail:
1. The error hypothesis. This theory determines the errors that can occur in chemical reactions in the production of DNA and RNA, since the metabolic mechanism is not accurate by 100%. The death of cells can be the result of these unresolved errors.
2. The theory of free radicals. He answers the question about why a person is getting old, in his own way. Uncontrolled free radicals can damage the membranes that surround cells and cellular DNA and RNA molecules. This damage eventually leads to cell death.
At present, this theory is hotly researched. Experiments in mice have shown that a 40% reduction in caloric intake leads to a doubling of their lifespan and a decrease in the number of free radicals. In addition, scientists have found that vitamins E and C absorb them well.
3. The theory of cross-linking asserts that the aging of living organisms is caused by the random formation (by stitching) of "bridges" between protein molecules, which then interfere with the process of producing RNA and DNA. This crosslinking can be caused by many chemicals that usually appear in cells as a result of metabolism, as well as through contaminants (eg lead and tobacco smoke).
4. The brain hypothesis answers the question of why people quickly grow old, in a different way. This is due to a "breakdown" in the homeostasis of the body's functions, especially in the control of the hypothalamus over the pituitary gland, which in turn causes frustration in the control of the endocrine glands.
5. Auto-immune theory. It was suggested by Dr. Roy Valford in Los Angeles, which suggests that two types of protein cells of the immune system (B and T) lose their energy due to the "attack" of bacteria, viruses and cancer cells. And when B- and T-cells become defective, they infect healthy cells of the body.
Why a person is growing old: causes and symptoms
At some point in life, often closer to 30 years,Signs of aging begin to be evident. They can be seen in everything: the skin appears wrinkles, the strength and flexibility of bones and joints decreases, the cardiovascular, digestive and nervous systems undergo changes.
While no one can say for sure why a person is getting old. But it is definitely revealed that genetics, diet, exercise, illness and other factors influence this process.
Carefully get acquainted with the signs and causes of aging of the body's basic systems:
1. Cells, organs and tissues:
- telomeres, which are located at the ends of chromosomes inside each cell, eventually prevent the bifurcation of the DNA molecule;
- waste accumulates in cells;
- connective tissue becomes more rigid;
- the maximum functional capacity of many organs is reduced.
2. Heart and blood vessels:
- the wall of the heart becomes thicker;
- the heart muscles begin to work less efficiently, pumping the same amount of blood;
- the aorta becomes thicker, stiffer, and less flexible;
- the arteries supply the heart and brain more slowly, which is the reason why the person is aging, the signs are obvious.
3. Vital functions:
- the body becomes more difficult to control the temperature;
- The heart rate takes longer to return to normal after workout.
4. Bones, muscles, joints:
- Bones become thinner and less strong;
- joints - more rigid and less flexible;
- cartilage in the bones and joints begin to weaken;
- muscle tissue also loses its force, this explains why a person is aging, the reasons for this process.
5. Digestive system:
- The stomach, liver, pancreas and small intestine produce much less digestive juices;
- the movement of food through the digestive system slows down.
6. Brain and nervous system:
- the number of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord decreases;
- in the brain, abnormal structures such as "plaques" and "coils" can form, which leads to a deterioration in its operability;
- the number of connections between nerve cells decreases.
7. Eyes and ears:
- the retina becomes thinner, and the pupils are stiffer;
- Lenses are less clear;
- the walls of the ear canal become thinner, and the eardrums - thicker.
8. Skin, nails and hair:
- the skin with age will become thinner and less elastic, which is the reason why people grow old outwardly;
sweat glands produce less sweat;
- nails grow more slowly;
- the hair is gray, and some even stop growing.
Symptoms of aging
There are common symptoms of aging, which include these:
- increased susceptibility to infections;
- a slight decrease in growth;
- increased risk of heat stroke or hypothermia;
- Bones break more easily;
- slow motion;
- reduction of total energy;
- constipation and urinary incontinence;
- a slight slowdown in the process of thinking and memory deterioration;
- reduced coordination;
- deterioration of visual acuity and reduction of peripheral vision;
- loss of hearing;
- sagging and wrinkling of the skin;
- graying of hair;
- weight loss.
Next, consider what is the reason why a person grows old, and what things make us older.
Effect of sugar
People who like sweets will be uncomfortablelearn that sugar "accelerates" our old age. If you consume it in large quantities, you will quickly gain weight quickly, and your body will become more susceptible to chronic diseases. Of course, they will slowly "take root" in a person's life for a long time. However, each chronic disease affects all cells in the body negatively. Which is the reason why a person slowly grows old.
Even a child knows that smoking is bad forhealth. In New Zealand, for example, 5,000 people die each year due to the adverse effects of smoking (including passive). It's 13 people a day!
Each cigarette you smoke will add wrinkles on your face. And in combination with a lot of sunlight also contribute to the emergence of dying cells on the skin.
Yes, you are not mistaken! Breaking up with someone you strongly love, of course, has a negative impact not only on your psychological state, but also on appearance and health.
In 2009, scientists conducted research with identical twins, which revealed that the separated pairs look much older than those that have always been together.
Exposure to the sun
Sun rays have a positive effect on the human body, but to a certain extent. They can cause wrinkles on the skin, then it becomes clear why some people grow old faster than others.
Excess of the sun can lead to elastosis (a decrease in the elasticity of the skin) and to the appearance of numerous pigment spots on the face.
Phobias and stresses
In recent studies, it has been established thatpersonal phobias and experiences accelerate aging and add a few years to your appearance. Chronic stress leads to the constant release of hormones of fear, which have a negative effect on internal organs and tissues. And they also contribute to the formation of free radicals, which is why people are rapidly aging.
How to slow down a biological clock
There are several recommendations that will help you yourself and without the investment of huge amounts to slow the aging process in the body:
1. Learn to manage your fears and cope with experiences.
2. Limiting calorie intake significantly slows down your old age. Preliminary results of studies on monkeys showed that rational diets can "slow down" the age-related physiological changes.
3. Do regular physical exercises. After all, they contribute to the release of growth hormones.
4. Try to get enough sleep every day. Only during sleep can we fully restore all our strength.
5. Relax. Choose the relaxation method that suits you best. Perhaps it will be dancing, reading books, listening to music or just taking hot baths.
And in conclusion we can say that we will all begrow old, like it or not. But we now know how to slow down this process, even at the cellular level. It is necessary not only to lead a healthy lifestyle, but also to minimize all the factors that adversely affect our body.