Thrombocytopenia in children: causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment
So many babies are recently sick.Serious diseases, which often have a detrimental effect on their development. A couple of decades ago, few people heard of such a disease as thrombocytopenia, and now it is increasingly being detected in newborns. But what is thrombocytopenia in children, what provokes its development and how does it manifest itself?
Thrombocytopenia: what is this pathology?
Thrombocytopenia is an unusual and mysteriousa disease that can manifest itself as a symptom that indicates another serious and dangerous pathology (cancer, HIV) or an independent disease. In addition, the disease can manifest itself in the form of an allergic reaction of the body to any kind of substance. Also, this pathology can suffer people who abuse alcohol, or received a huge dose of radiation. Proceeding from this, it can be concluded that thrombocytopenia in children and adults can be caused by various causes, and only an experienced doctor and modern diagnostic methods will allow to know exactly what triggered her appearance.
Thrombocytopenia in childhood ispathology, during which the blood level of platelets decreases, and they, in turn, are responsible for blood coagulability. Platelets are blood plates that, when the integrity of the vessel surface is violated, rushes to the site of injury and closes the wound, stopping the bleeding.
What triggers thrombocytopenia in children?
The most common thrombocytopenia in children iscongenital pathology, for example, in the syndrome of Bernard-Soulier, Viscot-Aldrich, Fanconi and others. Also in childhood, this ailment can provoke an increased function of the spleen - hypersplenism. And all because of the fact that this is the body where blood cells that have worked their time are being processed.
A decrease in the number of platelets may indicateto the fact that a person has cancer of the blood. When all the blood-forming processes in the bone marrow completely cease, at the same time the patient has a shortage of other components of the blood.
Classification of thrombocytopenia
The disease is divided into two forms:
- Primary - accompanied only by the appearancethrombocytopenic syndrome, while there are no other internal diseases. Thrombocytopenia purpura, idiopathic and hemolytic-uremic syndrome are all pathologies of the primary form.
- Secondary manifestation as a complication after the main pathology, for example HIV, cirrhosis of the liver or leukemia.
Depending on whether the immune component is present in the causes of thrombocytopenia or not, two other forms are distinguished:
- Immune thrombocytopenia - appears duringrapid destruction of platelets under the influence of antibodies. In this state, human immunity can not correctly recognize platelets, takes them for a foreign body, and produces antibodies against them, which block them, thereby aggravating the patient's already complex condition.
- A non-immune form can develop in the case of mechanical damage to platelets, this most often occurs with extracorporeal circulation or with Marietaafa-Mikeli disease.
Most often it is immune thrombocytopenia manifested in children, and divide it into several groups.
Groups of immune thrombocytopenia
There are 4 main groups of immune thrombocytopenia:
- Isoimmune is a form in which plateletsare destroyed by incompatibility with one of the group blood systems. It can also be caused by transfusion to the recipient with other people's platelets in the presence of antibodies to them or the penetration of antibodies to the child through the womb of the mother.
- Transmunnal - occurs when the autoantibodies of a mother who suffers from an autoimmune form pass through the placenta, and after birth, thrombocytopenia appears immediately in newborn infants.
- Heteroimmune - this group is associated with malfunctions in the antigenic structure of the platelet, which occur under the influence of the virus or the appearance of a new type of antibody.
- Autoimmune is a group in which antibodies are produced against their own unchanged type of antibodies.
But what provokes the appearance of the disease, what causes lead to it, in addition to the hereditary factor?
Causes of thrombocytopenia
Most often, thrombocytopenia in children can be provoked by such causes:
- Insufficient amount of microelements in the body.
- Allergic reaction to products from the outside world.
- An autoimmune process in the body.
- Another pathology, most often this is HIV, cirrhosis or leukemia.
But not only diseases and external factors can cause illness, but it can also be triggered by taking medications that have been prescribed to the patient.
What medications can trigger the development of thrombocytopenia?
As shown by the practice and numerous studies of scientists, very often thrombocytopenia in young children appears due to the use of medicines of the following groups:
- Antibiotics, most often "Levomycetin" or sulfonamides.
- Diuretics - "Furosemide" or "Hydrochlorothiazide."
- Anticonvulsant drug "Phenobarbital".
- Antipsychotics - "Prochlorperazine" or "Meprobamate".
- Antithyroid drugs - "Tiamazol".
- Preparations against diabetes - "Glibenclamide" and "Glipizid."
- Anti-inflammatory drugs - "Indomethacin".
But what symptoms can indicate that the patient has thrombocytopenia?
Symptomatology of the disease
Every patient can have different thrombocytopenia, the causes and treatment, thus, are also individual, but most people have very similar symptoms:
- Hemorrhages in the skin and mucous membranes. It appears as red spots of small size. They are especially noticeable in those places where clothes rub most of all about the body. These spots do not cause pain or any discomfort, do not protrude above the surface of the skin or mucous membranes. They can both be point-like and occupy large areas. There may also appear bruising of red, blue or even a greenish-yellow hue.
- Frequent bleeding from the nose. The mucous nasal is abundantly supplied with blood, and there is a large number of capillaries in it. Due to a decrease in the formation of platelets, the fragility of the capillaries increases, so any sneezing, minor trauma or colds can trigger bleeding, which can last more than 10 minutes.
- Bleeding gums. Many people get small bleeding during brushing, but in diseased patients this symptom is very pronounced, develops over a larger area of the gums and lasts long enough.
- Bleeding in the stomach and intestines. They arise because of the fragility of the vessels, and even hard food can provoke them. As a result, blood can come out with feces.
- Blood in the urine. This symptom appears due to the fact that there is a hemorrhage on the mucosa of the bladder and on the ways of urine output.
- Abundant and long months in girls. In the normal state, the duration of the menstrual cycle is 3-5 days, and with thrombocytopenia, menstruation can last two or even three times longer, and bleeding is abundant.
- Long bleeding after tooth extraction. In a normal state, after 20 minutes it stops, and if a patient has thrombocytopenia, it can last much longer, and all because of the lack of platelets in the body and they can not cope with their task quickly.
Do not forget about what can havecompletely different thrombocytopenia causes. And everyone is treated individually. The disease can also be manifested by the symptoms that are characteristic of the pathology that provoked it. During the diagnosis, they need to be considered.
If the doctor noticed the patient's characteristicsymptoms of the disease, then in the first place he prescribes a clinical blood test, with which you can find out the level of platelets in the blood. Pay attention to the indicators of the number of other bodies - erythrocytes and leukocytes. It is the determination of the level of platelets and is the main method of diagnosing a disease such as thrombocytopenia in children up to a year or older.
Currently, all people with HIV are recommendedregularly take a clinical blood test. Doctors recommend to undergo a screening every six months and, in addition to the general test, take more and more: for immune status and viral load.
There are 5 main factors that influence the diagnosis:
- Absence of any symptoms in early childhood.
- Absence of symptomatic hereditary forms of thrombocytopenia.
- If there are no clinical manifestations in relatives.
- The effectiveness of the glucocorticosteroid form of treatment in certain dosages.
- If possible, the detection of antiplatelet antibodies.
But how to treat thrombocytopenia in children, which methods are more effective? Folk medicine than can help with this diagnosis and can it?
Therapeutic methods for thrombocytopenia
Treatment of a patient from thrombocytopeniadirectly depends on what causes led to this pathology. Only correctly diagnosed will allow to select more effective methods of therapy. Today, doctors use several treatment options:
- Reception of medicines.
- Surgical intervention.
- Treatment with folk methods.
In some cases, you do not need to treat the disease, itpasses itself. For example, thrombocytopenia secondary is mild in children with a slight decrease in platelet count. In this situation, the doctor can prescribe to the patient only a vitamin complex and preparations for general strengthening of the organism.
With regard to pregnant women who havethis ailment, then they should not cause serious illnesses. Women who carry a baby often suffer from the fact that they have a very low level of platelets in the blood. After childbirth, and some even during pregnancy, the level of these bodies comes back to normal and without any treatment. The most dangerous is considered immune thrombocytopenia, it is very important to properly treat it.
Treatment of immune thrombocytopenia
The immune form of the disease is considered one of thethe most serious, except this, it is also the most common. The pathology develops against the background of weakened immunity, caused by the fact that the child has been ill with influenza, ARVI or is an HIV-infected patient. In addition, the reason for the appearance of this form of ailment can be and uncontrolled by the doctor taking medications.
In addition to the immune form, it is often foundAutoimmune, which also occurs due to glitches in the immune system. To cure this disease, most often recommended the use of immunosuppressive drugs. Also, a doctor can prescribe glucocorticosteroid drugs, because it is thanks to them that the platelet count increases.
In those cases, if thrombocytopenia was caused by a virus or infection, first of all one must cure the disease that caused a decrease in the level of platelets. Perhaps after the therapy everything will return to normal.
HIV-infected patients deserve special attention. It's just so necessary that parents carefully monitor their health and follow all the doctor's recommendations clearly.
In some cases, in the treatment of thrombocytopeniarecommend an operation, namely the removal of the spleen. But this method is used only as a last resort, if the patient has a risk of bleeding. As practice has shown, most children after surgery, if any, have excellent results.
But not only traditional medicine helps in treatment, folk methods are also effective.
Folk methods in the treatment of thrombocytopenia
Treatment of thrombocytopenia in children with folkmeans gives excellent results, especially the use of sesame oil. It regulates the level of platelets in the blood. It is simply eaten 10 grams to three times a day.
Infusion of verbena also helps. Prepare it this way: 5 g Verbena pour a glass of boiling water, wrapped in a towel and leave to infuse for 30 minutes. Take it for one month a glass a day in small portions.
Do not forget about preventive measures that will help protect against thrombocytopenia.
Those children who are already ill or have a tendency to this ailment should follow preventive measures:
- Avoid any situations that could lead to injury.
- Parents need to adjust the diet of children.
- Do not take "Aspirin" and other drugs that belong to the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Parents should carefully monitor the fact thateat their children, what medicines the doctor prescribes. When contacting a polyclinic, even with an ordinary cold, the treating doctor must know about the diagnosis.
Summing up, it must be said that onlyregular adherence to all doctor's recommendations, taking all medications and preventative measures will help a child with thrombocytopenia feel good and do not consider themselves restrained. Parents of such children should pay more attention to their babies and constantly take them to the doctor for an examination. In fact, there are a lot of such small patients in our country, but they all live a full life, and their illness does not bother.